First Aid Basics/Health and Safety tips.


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By reading this thread you may find yourself in a position that you could save someone's life.
ASTHMA View attachment 69
What to do when someone has an
asthma attack:
1 Assist the casualty, if conscious, into a
comfortable position - usually sitting
upright and leaning forward.
2 Be reassuring and ensure they have
adequate fresh air.
3 Assist with prompt administration of
- Give four puffs of a blue reliever
inhaler (puffer). Casualty takes a
breath with each puff.
- Use a spacer if available: give four
puffs one at a time – casualty takes
four breaths after each puff.
- Wait four minutes.
- If no improvement, give another four
4 If little or no benefit, call ambulance.
5 In the case of a severe attack with no
improvement, until the ambulance
arrives keep giving:
- children four puffs every four minutes.
- adults up to six to eight puffs every five
6 If the casualty is unconscious call for
an ambulance immediately.
Where permitted:
- Use another person’s reliever inhaler or
use one from a first aid kit to assist a
casualty with a severe asthma attack.
- If someone is having difficulty
breathing, but has not previously had an
asthma attack, assist in giving four puffs
of a reliever and continue with four puffs
every four minutes if required until an
ambulance arrives.
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The Heimlich Manoeuvre
For adults and children (over one year), the
rescuer should perform abdominal thrusts,
or what is more usually called ‘the Heimlich
To do this, stand behind the person, make
a fist and place it, thumb inwards, between
the victim’s navel and the bottom of his
Grasp your fist with your other hand and
pull sharply inwards and upwards. Heimlich
manoeuvres are usually delivered in groups
of five thrusts.
If the object has not been removed
after three cycles of five thrusts, make
sure that the ambulance has been called.
Continue to do the Heimlich Manoeuvre
until the object is expelled or until the
person goes unconscious. If the person
becomes unconscious, start C.P.R.
Any person who has been choking and
has the Heimlich manoeuvre or chest thrust
performed on them should have medical
attention afterwards


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A person suffering a heart attack will usually
experience chest pain. This pain is often
described as a pressure sensation or tightness
in the chest and it can be confused with
indigestion. The pain may radiate into the
neck, jaw, gums and down both arms, more
commonly the left. The person may appear pale,
have a cold sweat, shortness of breath and feel
weak or faint. The pain may come on at any time
and not necessarily be caused by exertion.

View attachment 70

What to do
The immediate risk to the person suffering a
heart attack is that he or she may have a cardiac arrest. Fifty percent of people who suffer a
cardiac arrest as the result of a heart attack do
so within two hours of the onset of symptoms
It is very important that the symptoms
of a heart attack are recognised early and
that an ambulance is called quickly using
the emergency 112 or 999 number. In the
meantime, the person should be placed at rest
in a comfortable position, usually sitting. It is
advisable for the person to chew an aspirin if
he/she is not allergic to it and does not have
a history of stomach ulcers. If the person
collapses and is not breathing normally C.P.R.
(cardiopulmonary resuscitation) should be
started immediately.
Medical action
The key elements to give a person with a
cardiac arrest the best chance of surviving
are listed in what is known as the Chain of
Link 1 – Early access – recognise symptoms
and call the ambulance.
Link 2 – Early C.P.R. – start C.P.R. immediately.
Link 3 – Early Defi brillation – apply an A.E.D.
and deliver a shock if instructed.
Link 4 – Early Advance care – including
medication and coronary care unit.
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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid technique which should be administered as soon as possible to a person who has suffered a cardiac arrest (their heart has stopped beating). A heart attack is the commonest cause of cardiac arrest.

The first few minutes after a cardiac arrest are vital: if the pumping activity of the heart is not restored within a couple of minutes the brain suffers irreversible damage. CPR involves a combination of mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and chest compressions to keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other organs.

New guidelines concerning the best method for carrying out CPR were published by the American Heart Association in November 2005, and have been adopted by the Irish Heart Foundation since July 2006. This means the following guidelines may differ from advice you have previously received. If you feel more confident using older techniques that you may be familiar with, you can continue to do so; they are still effective and valid.

CPR technique

Adults (including children above the age of puberty)

* Check the person for a response and for any sign of normal breathing.
* If they are unresponsive and are not breathing normally, ring for an ambulance immediately on 999 (or 112) - or if possible, get some else to ring for you.
* Begin CPR as follows.

First give 30 chest compressions:

* Place the heel of one hand in the centre of the person's chest (between the nipples) and place your other hand on top of the first. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands.
* Press down on the chest 4-5cm, pushing hard and fast. Repeat this 30 times, at a rate of 100 compressions/minute (faster than once per second).

Give 2 rescue breaths:

* Pinch the person's nose and seal the patient's mouth with your own. Blow steadily into the person's mouth for one second, checking to see whether the person's chest rises with each breath.

* Continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths until help arrives, or the person begins to breathe normally.

View attachment 71

Babies and children

There are some differences to the procedure if you need to give CPR to a child or a baby (under one year of age). The key differences are:

* If you are on your own, give one minute of CPR BEFORE calling an ambulance (ideally, have someone else call an ambulance while you begin CPR)
* Babies and children should be given 5 initial rescue breaths BEFORE commencing chest compressions.
* Check the airway for any obvious obstructions before giving rescue breaths by placing one hand on the forehead, gently tilting the head back and lifting the chin.
* For babies, you will need to place your mouth over the infant's mouth and nose to give rescue breaths.
* Use only two fingers for chest compressions for babies, placed just below the nipple line; for children above the age of 1, use one or two hands.
* After the 5 initial rescue breaths, the same adult procedure can be followed (i.e., 30 chest compressions followed by 2 breaths.

Recovery position

If breathing is restored and signs of circulation are present, roll the patient over onto their side into what is commonly known as the 'recovery position' until an ambulance arrives.

The patient may still be unconscious at this point, but placing them on their side means that mucus or vomit which may have accumulated as a result of the trauma they have experienced will be able to get out of the mouth and will not obstruct the airways.

Also, the 'recovery position' prevents the tongue from falling back into the mouth and blocking the air passages.

Note: CPR is best learned at a first aid course where hands-on experience of the technique is acquired. Training is usually performed on a special mannequin, which has been constructed to simulate the signs of cardiac arrest. The above instructions should not be regarded as adequate instruction in CPR.
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Basic Life

Infant life-saving tips
Basic Life Support and C.P.R. are interchangeable
terms. The following are the steps that should be
followed on finding an infant who appears collapsed
and unresponsive.
1 Ensure the safety of the scene and take
standard precautions against infection.
2 Check if the infant is responsive by gently
tapping and talking to him.
3 If the infant is unresponsive – shout for help.
If another person is available send him/her to
phone for an ambulance. If no help is available
continue to step 4.
4 Open the infant’s airway. To do this place two
fingers of one hand on the infant’s chin, your
other hand on its forehead and then gently lift
up its chin while tilting back its head. A small
amount of movement is all that is required.
5 Check for normal breathing. First look into the
infant’s mouth, remove any obstruction that
may be visible. Then place your ear next to the
infant’s mouth and listen and feel with you ear
for any breathing while looking along the chest
for any chest movement. Spend ten seconds
doing this check. If the infant is breathing
normally turn him/her on its side in to the
recovery position. If the infant is not breathing
normally proceed to step six.
6 While holding the infant’s airway open, seal
your mouth around the infant’s nose and
mouth. Give two gentle rescue breaths
(puffs). If air enters the infant’s lungs you
should see the infant’s chest rise slightly with
each breath. You can make up to five attempts
to achieve the two breaths.
7 Place two fingers on the centre of the infant’s
chest just below the nipple line. Compress
(push down) the infant’s chest to about a
third to a half of the depth of the chest.
Compressions need to be fast at a rate of 100
per minute. Give a total of 30 compressions.
8 Then give two further rescue breaths.
9 Repeat steps seven and eight five times.This should take about two minutes. If an
ambulance has not yet been called you should
do so at this stage by dialling 999 or 112.
10 Resume and continue C.P.R giving cycles of
30 compressions and two breaths until help
11 If any time while you are doing C.P.R, you
think the baby is breathing, stop and check the
baby’s breathing (as in step five). If the infant
is breathing normally place him/her in the
recovery position. If the baby is not breathing normally resume C.P.R.

---------- Post added at 02:51 PM ---------- Previous post was at 02:28 PM ----------

adult cpr watch video here

---------- Post added at 02:51 PM ---------- Previous post was at 02:51 PM ----------

baby cpr watch here

---------- Post added at 02:53 PM ---------- Previous post was at 02:51 PM ----------

how to deal with choking watch video here


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TK Supporter
Stroke - How To Tell If They Are Having A Stroke / What To Do.

The first thing you need to do is understand exactly what a stoke is. The most common stroke is caused when an obstruction (possibly a blood clot), stops the flow of blood to the brain. When your brain is not provided a sufficient amount of oxygen the nerves and cells of the section that doesn't get the oxygen start dying. This only takes a matter of minutes.

The following symptoms are usually present in someone who is having a stroke: blurry vision, impaired or slurred speech, sudden dizziness or loss of balance, sudden confusion, numbness on one side of the body, or severe headaches. If you believe your friend or loved one is having a stroke use this acronym:


Face: Can the person smile normally or is one side of the face sluggish?

Arms: Can the person raise or use both arms normally? Is one arm droopy?

Speech: Can the person speak correctly or is the speech slurred or hard to understand? Does the person seem confused when you are talking to them?

Time: If the above symptoms are present, you need to contact 911 or your local ambulance as soon as possible. This person's brain cells are dying and every second will count.

Acting quickly can save a person from severe disabilities. The patient will receive a drug that will eliminate the clot and get the blood flowing back to the brain again. It is important not to ignore any symptoms you may have, even if they go away. Make a note and keep track of when the symptoms started. If it is a friend or relative that is having these symptoms, insist that they get immediate help. Don't take no for an answer even if they persist. Remember strokes can lead to death so it is better to be safe (have a few tests done) than to be sorry.

If the person has difficulty with any of these above tasks, he or she may be having a stroke. Here are some steps to follow.

First of all: Remain calm. You won't do your loved one any good if you panic.

Second: Call for help. Yell loudly or use a phone if there is one handy. Call 911 or have someone else call 911.

Third: Stay with the person. Be reassuring. Make sure he/she is seated or is lying down comfortably. If he/she is lying down but conscious, try to raise the head and shoulders slightly so he/she is comfortable.

Fourth: If person loses consciousness, help him/her to the floor: Stand behind the person and gently guide him/her down one of your legs. Lay the person on his/her back and tilt his/her head back to make sure the airway is open. Stretch the person's legs out so he/she is comfortable.

Fifth: If you know CPR, use it if necessary. If you don't know CPR, do not attempt it. You could do the person more harm than good.

Sixth: Cover the person so his/her body temperature remains normal.

Seventh: If the person has any paralyzed limbs, protect them. Prop them with pillows or blankets.


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What to do in the event of a fire?

Here are a few guidelines in the event of a fire. Reacting properly can help avoid the worst!

Alert the fire brigade .

Alert all the occupants.

Close all doors behind you, as well as windows along the way. Fresh air kindles fire.

Leave the building immediately.

Never use the lift.

Never open a warm door. There is a fire behind it!

Do not take anything with you.

Do not run.

Never turn back.

If you are encircled by fire, make sure you can be seen at the window!

Check that all the other occupants have left the building. Inform the firefighters of the situation when they arrive.

Keep a wet cloth over your mouth: smoke and combustion gases can suffocate you.

Stay as close to the ground as possible: you will see better and there is more oxygen.

Always keep your hand against the wall, then you will not be disoriented by the smoke.

Block up the cracks around doors, if possible with wet cloths, to stop smoke getting in.

Treating burns: water first, the rest later!
Rinse burns abundantly with cold water until the emergency services arrive.
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Shock and fainting and what....

What should you do if you or someone close to you experiences shock or fainting? The dos and don'ts

Both conditions occur when there has been a sudden, marked fall in blood pressure, which reduces the amount of blood and oxygen flowing to the brain. This leads to feelings of faintness, dizziness, and confusion.

Shock may also occur:

* After any accident, especially when there has been loss of blood.
* After any serious infection which has involved loss of fluids.
* After a serious burn.

When a person suffers shock they can:

* Go pale.
* Become sweaty, cold and clammy.
* Feel dizzy.
* Have a weak, fast pulse.
* Have slow, shallow breathing.
* Have low blood pressure.
* Seem anxious and restless.
* Lose consciousness.

What to do if someone is shocked or feels faint

* Lay them down, raising and supporting their legs.
* Make sure the subject is comfortable and warm – but not hot.
* Do not give drinks, but moisten their lips if necessary.
* Lay them on their side if they are unconscious, or if there is any bleeding from the mouth, or if they are vomiting.
* Call for an ambulance as they will need to be examined by a doctor.

(please note all of the above posts are all extracted from various sites and im not the author of them but by reproducing these items on TechKings im hoping that the readers of this thread if they should find themselves faced with any of the above that you may remember something from the above threads that may assist you and above all the casualty)


Good thread themoh
Just to add a little tip to your thread because i learnt this while doing a intensive first aid and firefighting course some years back.
While your hand is on the wall trying to leave a room put one foot foward to feel for any objects that might cause you to trip over or stay to the ground but feel your way forward first .
And always always feel a door with the back of your hand first before attemping to open it .